Agriculture: grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish.
Labour force: 19.33 million; agriculture 5.3%, manufacturing, mining, and construction 30.1%, services 64.6% (2004 est.).
Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment.
Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land.
Exports: $172.5 billion (f.o.b., 2004 est.): machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods.
Imports: $222 billion (f.o.b., 2004 est.): machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods; foodstuffs, consumer goods; measuring and medical control instruments.
Major trading partners: France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, UK, U.S., Netherlands (2003).